History – Introduction, and Parts

History is the study of the past or past events. The father of History is Herodotus.

Types of History

There are 3 parts of History on the basis of writing evidence. These 3 parts of history are created by John Bruce.

  1. Pre History (Pre Historic Period) – Archaeological, Non-Written Evidence, Stone
  2. Proto History (Proto Historic Period) – Archaeological, Written Evidence (Not Readable), Indus Valley Civilisation
  3. History (Historic) – Archaeological, Writing (Readable)

Pre History (Stone-Age)

In the Pre History of the Stone Age, there was no written evidence. In this age, mostly stone was used so it was called Stone Age. There were many Archaeologic found in this age.

There are 3 parts of Pre History on the basis of tools.

Parts of Pre History

  1. Old Stone Age (Palaeolithic) (2.5 Million BC to 12,000 BC) – Africa, Nomad, Food Collection, Hunting, Fire, Big Stones (Palaeolithic)
  2. Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) (12,000 BC to 5,000 BC) – Funeral, Microlithic (Mesolithic) (Small Stone)
  3. New Stone Age (Neolithic) (5,000 BC to 3,000 BC) – Farm (Barley or Millet and Wheat) (Farming Started from 7,000BC) (Place of Farming is Mehargarh (Mehargarh is in between Sulaiman and Kirthar Hills) (Pakistan)), Residence or Accomodation, Dog Craddle, Pottery, Wheel, Homosapien remains only
  4. Copper Age (Chalcolithic) (Eneolithic) (Age between New Stone Age to Proto History) – Copper
Old Stone Age –
  • The old stone age is also called Palaeolithic. This age was longest age from 2.5 million BC to 12,000 BC.
  • Africa is call the cradle of the Humankind.
  • In this age, Humankind was Nomad.
  • They only collect the food.
  • They eat only by hunting. They were only non vegetarian.
  • Firstly fire was discovered in this age.
Middle Stone Age –
  • This age is also called Mesolithic age. This age was from 12,000 BC to 5,000 BC.
  • Humankind started to do Funeral in this period.
  • Humankind started using small stones as tools and weapons.
New Stone Age –
  • This stone age or period was from 5000 BC to 3000 BC. This period is also called Neolithic
  • They started farming in this period of Barley or Millet and Wheat.
  • Basically, Farming was started from 7,000 BC.
  • Place of the first time farming was Mehargarh. Mehargarh is in the Pakistan and in between Sulaiman and Kirthar hills.
  • They also started staying one place for farming. So this is the period when Humankind started living in the residence.
  • Human also started to cradle the dogs.
  • They also started creating and using Pottery in this age.
  • Humankind created Wheels too in this age.
  • In this age, only Homo sapiens remains.
Copper Age –
  • The Copper age is also called Chalcolithic or Eneolithic age.
  • This age is also called Copper Stone age.
  • This period was started after Stone age and before the Proto history.
  • In this period Humankind started using Copper too (as their tools).

First Time

  • Skull or Skeleton, first time found at Pallavram in Madras (Chennai) in Tamil Nadu state of India.
  • First time, Humankind drawn a figure or picture at Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh. They drawn an elephant and a human with Javelin. Bhimbetka is in Raisen District and nearby Bindhyachal hills and Narmada River Valley.
  • Chirand is first Archaeological place in Saran (Chhapra) District of Bihar in India.
  • First time found Rice or Paddy at Koldihawa in UP state of India. Koldihwa is situated in the valley of Belan River near village Devghat.
  • First time Humankind created Pit house in Burzahom in Srinagar in Kashmir.

Proto History

In Proto History, we found the written evidence but it was not readable to us. Also in this history, we found archaeology.

  • Indus Valley Civilization ( 3,000 BC to 1,500 BC)
  • Vedic Civilization (1,500 BC to 600 BC)


There are 3 parts of History.

  • Ancient History
  • Medieval History
  • Modern History
Note: John Bruce divided history as above but Christian Jürgensen Thomsen divided this as the what they used to create their tools (Things like Stones, Bronze, and Iron) in their ages.

So Christian Jürgensen Thomsen created Three-Age System.

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